Engineering Agriculture and Medicine Common Entrance Test (EAMCET) Syllabus
1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE:
Electromagnetic Radiation: Wave nature - Wave Characteristics: Wave length - frequency - Wave number - units to express these quantities - relationship between them.
Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen - different regions of the spectrum - wave number of the spectral lines in these regions (Rydberg's equation),. Lyman, Balmer , Paschen , Bracket and Pfund series.
Atomic Models: Rutherford's model, merits and demerits
Bohr's Model: Postulates - formulation of the model - Expressions for the energy and radius of the Hydrogen Atomic orbits with derivations - limitations. Zeemen, Stark effects - Sommerfields modifications.
Quantum Numbers: Significance - writing quantum numbers for differentiating electrons in atoms - Pauli's exclusion principle.
Wave nature of electron: De-Broglie wave equation - Heisenberg's uncertainty principle , Schroedinger's equation (Cartesian coordinates equation only).
Orbitals: Shapes of s, p, and d orbitals - orbitals energy sequence - aufbau principle - Hund's rule. Electronic configuration of elements (from atomic no: 1 to 30 by nlx method)
Stability and magnetic behaviour of atoms based on concepts of electronic configuration.
II. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY:
Nuclear particles: (Protons, Neutrons) - isotopes, isobars, isotones and Isodiapheres.
Nucleus: Relative dimensions of atom and nucleus - nuclear mass defect - mass -energy relation - binding energy - n/p ratio - magic numbers.
Nuclear reactions: Writing nuclear reactions in the shortest form of (M (a, b) M') notation, balancing - typical examples of nuclear reactions - nuclear fusion (proton) reactions - nuclear fission (uranium - 235) - Differences between nuclear and Chemical reactions.
Radioactivity: Units of radioactivity (Curie, Rutherford and Bacquerel) - natural and artificial radioactivity - disintegration series - Group displacement law.
Radioactive disintegration: Rate equation (no derivation) - decay constant - half-life period - numerical problems on radioactive disintegrations - Radioactive isotopes (O18, P32, U238, C14, I131) and their applications
III. PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS:
Periodic Laws and Periodic Table: Periodic laws based on atomic number and electron configuration - Structure of the long form of the periodic table - s, p, d, f blocks - outer electronic configuration of elements of s, p, d and f blocks.
Periodic trends: Trends down the group and across the period in respect of atomic size, ionic radius, Oxidation State, ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity - reasons for the trends.
IV. CHEMICAL BONDING:
Ionic Bonding: Nature, factors favourable for the bond formation - Effect of ionization potential, electron affinity and electro negativity - Born - Haber cycle for sodium chloride crystal formation - Face centered cubic lattice structure of sodium chloride - Body centered cubic lattice structure of cesium chloride (diagrammatic illustrations only) - coordination number of metal ions in the crystals of sodium chloride and cesium chloride. Properties of ionic substances.
Covalent Bond: Nature - octet rule and electron dot formula of simple molecules (BeCl2, BF3, CO2, NH3, H2O,PCl5, SF6, CH4, C2-H4, C2H6) - postulates of valence bond theory (qualitative treatment) - overlapping of orbitals - sigma and pi bonds - dipole moment (qualitative aspect) of simple molecules. (HCl, H2O, SO2, NH3, CH4-, CCl4) - Properties of covalent substances.
Hybridization of Orbitals: sp, sp2, sp3, dsp3, d2sp3 hybridizations - shapes of simple molecules (BeCl2, BCl3, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, NH3, H2O, PCl5, and SF6)
Bond Lengths - bond angles and bond energies - postulates of valance shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory - application to geometry of covalent molecules (beryllium chloride, boron tri-chloride, water and ammonia)
Hydrogen Bond: Concept - inter and intra molecular Hydrogen bonds - typical examples.
Definition: Stoichiometry, Stoichiometric Equation, Stoichiometric amounts - Examples
Mole Concept: Gram atom, Gram molecule, Definition of mole, mass, formula weight - Calculations.
Chemical reactions and Numerical calculations based on weight - weight, weight - volume, volume - volume relationships
Calculation of empirical and molecular formulae of Carbon compounds - oxidation number - Redox reactions - Calculation of oxidation number - Balancing of redox reactions by ion - electron (half reaction) method and oxidation number method
VI. GASEOUS STATE:
Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law, Avogadro's law - statement and numerical problems.
Ideal gas equation: PV=nRT, values of R - numerical problems based on gas equation.
Graham's law of diffusion - Statement - numerical problems.
Dalton's law of partial pressures: Statement - numerical problems.
Kinetic theory of Gases: Postulates - derivation of PV= 1/3 mnc2 - Deducing gas laws from kinetic gas laws (Boyles law, Charles law, Dalton's law, Graham's law) from kinetic gas equation - RMS velocity - most probable velocity - Mathematical relationship between the three. Average kinetic energy of the molecules.
Definition of solution: Solvent - solute, methods of expressing concentrations of solutions - molarity, molality, normality - mole fraction methods - Numerical problems.
Vapour Pressure: Definition - effect of temperature - Raoult's law - Numerical problems.
VIII. ACIDS AND BASES:
Theories of Acids and Bases - Arrhenius acid - base concept, limitations, Lowry - Bronsted concept - examples - limitations - Lewis Theory - examples.
Ionic Product of Water: pH of aqueous solutions - (include both strong and weak acids and bases) - buffer solutions - types of buffers, buffer action - calculation of pH of acid buffers.
Indicators: Acid -base indicators - pH range - selection of indicators for acid - base titrations.
Hydrolysis of Salts: Definition - examples of different salts.
IX. ELECTRO CHEMISTRY:
Metallic Conductors - Electrolytes - Non-electrolytes - Arrhenius theory of ionization - Faraday's laws - Numerical problems.
Galvanic Cells: Definition - examples - cell notation - writing of cells and cell reactions.
Nernst Equation - e.m.f. calculation
X. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND CHEMICAL KINETICS:
Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible reactions - chemical equilibrium - dynamic nature - examples of chemical equilibrium, law of mass action - equilibrium constant - characteristics of equilibrium constant - factors affecting equilibrium - application of law of mass action to Haber's process (for Ammonia) .
Le Chatelier's Principle: Statement and applications to Haber's process (for Ammonia).
Chemical Kinetics: Rate of reaction (elementary treatment) factors (concentration - temperature, catalyst) affecting rate of reaction, rate law, rate constant and its units Order and Molecularity - First order Rate equation and half life - collision theory of reaction rates (elementary treatment)
XI. CHEMICAL ENERGETICS:
Chemical energetics: Internal energy - enthalpy - exothermic and endothermic reactions - heats of reaction; formation, combustion, neutralization - Hess Law - Numerical problems.
XII. SURFACE CHEMISTRY:
Adsorption and absorption - Physical and Chemical adsorption - distinguishing properties - Adsorption of Gases on Metals - Adsorption from solutions (Elementary treatment).
Colloidal State: True and Colloidal solutions - explanation of terms - Dispersion medium, Dispersed phase, lyophillic and lyophobic sols using the examples - smoke, cloud, blood, milk, starch solution and gold sol. Micelles - cleaning action of soap
Emulsions: emulsifying agent and emulsification - its applications
Catalysts: Explanation of terms - Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis, Distinction with suitable examples - auto catalysis with one example
XIII. HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS:
Water: Hardness of Water and its removal
Heavy Water: Isotopes of hydrogen - heavy water - electrolytic preparation - properties and uses of heavy Water.
Hydrogen Peroxide: Preparation (laboratory, electrolytic and auto oxidation) and concentration, properties of H2O2 as oxidizing agent and reducing agent, structure and uses of H2O2
XIV. ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS:
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties, chemical properties with reference to oxides, halides and carbonates.
Sodium and Magnesium: Occurrence - extraction of sodium (Castner and Down process) - extraction of Magnesium (from Carnalite and Magnasite) - Typical physical and chemical properties - Uses. Alloys of magnesium (Magnalium and Electron) preparation, properties and uses of the following compounds sodium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, magnesium - sulphate, Plaster of Paris, Lime Mortar and Gypsum.
XV. III GROUP ELEMENTS
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties - Chemical properties with reference to oxides, halides and hydroxides.
Aluminium: Occurrence - extraction - purification (electrolytic) - typical physical and chemical properties - uses including aluminothermic process - Preparation, properties and uses of Potash Alum.
Electron deficient compounds: Concept and examples, Diborane: Preparation, properties and structure
XVI. IV GROUP ELEMENTS:
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties of carbon and silicon.
Physical forms of Carbon: Allotropy of carbon - structure of diamond and graphite.
Preparation - properties - structure and uses of Silicon and SiO2 . Comparison of SiO2 with CO2.
Fuel gases: Producer gas and water gas - preparation - calorific values and uses.
XVII. V GROUP ELEMENTS:
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the period table - trends in physical properties.
Chemical Properties of Compounds of Nitrogen & Phosphorous: Hydrides, Oxides, Halides and structural aspects of Oxy - acids.
Industrial Preparation and Uses of: Ammonia, and Super phosphate of lime.
XVIII. VI GROUP ELEMENTS:
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties - allotropy of elements.
Chemical Properties of Compounds of Oxygen and Sulphur: Hydrides, oxides, halides and structural aspects of Oxy acids.
Preparation, properties and uses of Ozone, Sodium thiosulphate.
XIX. VII GROUP ELEMENTS:
General Characteristics: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table - trends in physical properties.
Fluorine and Chlorine: Preparation, properties and uses. Structure and oxidation states of Oxides and oxyacids of chlorine.
Bleaching Powder: Preparation, properties and uses.
XX. NOBLE GASES:
Discovery, Occurrence and isolation. Chemistry of Noble Gases and their uses
XXI. TRANSITION ELEMENTS (d block):
General characteristics of: Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodic table.
Properties: Oxidation states - color forming ability - alloy formation - magnetic properties
Coordination complexes: Werner's notations (elementary account)
XXII. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY:
Terminology: Environment, pollutant, contaminant, receptor, sink, speciation, dissolved oxygen, threshold limit.
Air Pollution: Common air pollutants - CO and oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphur - acid rains and green house effect
Water pollution: Common Water pollutants. Organic Pollutants, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Inorganic pollutants - Water treatment with respect to fluorine content
Ozone layer and effect of freons (CFC)
XXIII. HYDROCARBONS - I (ALKANES AND ALKENES):
Classification - Formation of sigma and pi bonds. Homologous series - concept and its significance.
Isomerism: Concept, Structural isomerism (chain, position, functional isomerism).
Nomenclature of Aliphatic Hydro Carbons : IUPAC system
Methane and Ethane: Preparation by reduction of alkyl halides, Wurtz method, Grignard method, de-carboxylation, Kolbe's'electrolysis, Sabtier - Senderen's reaction .
Chemical Properties: Halogenation, Nitration, Pyrolysis, Oxidation - Uses
Ethylene: Methods of preparation: dehydration of alcohols - dehydrohalogenation of alkylhalides - dehalogenation of dihalides.
Properties of Ethylene: Addition of hydrogen - halogens - hydrogen halides - water - hypohalous acids -mineral acids - polymerisation - oxidation (with Beayers reagent) - ozonolysis - Uses.
XXIV. HYDROCARBONS - II
Acetylene: preparation - Dehydrohalogenation of 1, 2 - dihalides - hydrolysis of CaC2 dehalogenation - Kolbe's electrolysis
Properties: Oxidation, addition of hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water, trimerization, salt formation, decolorization of Br2/CCl4 - uses
Benzene: Preparation from acetylene, coal tar distillation, structure of benzene, resonance - aromatic property. Properties: Friedel - Craft's reaction, halogenation, nitration, sulphonation - Uses.
XXV. ALKYL HALIDES
Nomenclature and classification to Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Alkyl halides
Ethyl Chloride: Preparation - from alcohols using Lucas reagent, PCl3, PCl5 and SOCl2.
Properties: Reduction, hydrolysis, dehydrohalogenation, Wurtz reaction, reactions with KNO2, AgNO2, KCN, AgCN, Mg and sodium ethoxide.
Chloroform: Preparation from ethanol using bleaching powder & water and chloralhydrate. Properties: Oxidation, isocyanide formation - hydrolysis - uses.
Nomenclature and classification to Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Alcohols
Ethanol: Preparation - Hydrolysis of alkyl halides, hydration of alkenes, fermentation of molasses & starch, Properties: Hydrogen bonding - Reaction with sodium , esterification, action with conc H2SO4 , reaction with Lucas reagent, PBr3, PCl5, oxidation with Potassium dichromate and Cu / 300oc. Combustion, chloroform formation. Differentiation with Lucas reagent - Uses.
Nomenclature - Diethyl ether - Preparation from alcohols-Williamson synthesis - Properties - Reaction with HI-Uses.
XXVIII. ALDEHYDES AND KETONES :
Nomenclature - Acetaladehyde & Acetone: Preparations - Oxidation of Alcohols, heating calcium salts.
Properties: oxidation, reduction with H2 / Ni and LiAlH4, addition of NaHSO3, HCN, NH3, hydroxylamine, phenylhydrazine, 2,4 - DNP, aldol condensation, oxidation with Tollen's and Fehlings reagents.
XXIX. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
Nomenclature - Acetic Acid - Preparations - Oxidation of alcohols, aldehydes , hydrolysis of cyanides.
Properties: Acidity - reactions with Na, NaOH, NaHCO3, esterification - acid cholrides, anhydrides, amides formation, halogenation - Uses.
XXX. NITROGEN COMPOUNDS
Nomenclature - Nitro-Benzene - Preparation - nitration of Benzene.
Properties: Reduction in acidic, basic, neutral media and with LiAlH4 - Uses
Aniline: Classification of amines - Preparation : reduction of nitro benzene. Properties: basic nature - salt formation with HCl, alkylation, N - acetylation, N- benzoyalation , diazotisation - carbylamine reaction - Uses.
XXXI: CHEMISTRY IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE:
Importance of Metals in the bio molecules viz., Haemoglobin, Cyanocobalamine (Vitamin B12) and chlorophyll (Elementary treatment)
Common Drugs used in Medicine: Actyl Salicylic acid (Aspirin) - Paracetamol (Elementary treatment of these two only)
I. WORLD OF PLANT LIFE:
A. Science of Botany: Its Origin, Some important landmarks in the development of Botany, uses of plants in daily life. Differences between plants and animals.
B. (i) Diversity in habitats - Mesophytes, Xerophytes, Hydrophytes, Halophytes, Epiphytes, Mangroves
(ii) Diversity in forms - Herbs, Shurbs, Trees, Twiners, Lianes
(iii) Diversity in life span - Ephemerals, Annuals, Biennials, Perennials
(iv) Diversity in nutritional Methods - Parasites, Saprophytes, Symbionts, Autotrophs
C. Branches of Botany and applied Botany - Phycology, Mycology, Lichenology, Bacteriology, Virology, Microbiology, Bryology, Pteridology, Morphology, Embryology, Palynology, Anatomy, Cytology, Taxonomy, Ecology, Genetics, Paleo-botany, Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Pharmacology, Plant breeding, Plant pathology, Biotechnology
II. INSTITUTES & BOTANISTS OF INDIA:
A. Contributions of the following institutes - BSI, NBRI, CIMAP, IARI, ICRISAT, FRI, ICAR.
B. Contributions of the following botanists - Birbal Sahni, P. Maheswari, M.O.P. Iyengar, M.S. Swaminathan and K.C. Mehta
III. VEGETATIVE MORPHOLOGY:
A. Root: Characteristics of roots, types of root system, Regions of root, Modifications of root
B. Stem: Characteristics and functions of stem, Types of stems, Types of buds, Types of branching, modifications of stem
C. Leaf: Leaf base, stipules, petioles. (Note: Lamina, Margins, apex, surface, texture OMITTED), Venation, phyllotaxy, types of leaves (simple & compound), leaf modifications.
IV. REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY:
A. Inflorescence: Racemose & cymose inflorescences, mixed and special inflorescences, Terminal inflorescence, Axillary inflorescence & intercalary inflorescence, cauliflory
B. Flower:- Structure of flower, sx distribution, symmetry of flower (based on the arrangement), merosity, structural symmetry, position of gynoecium on the thalamus, types of bracts & bracteoles, various types of thalamus, perianth, aestivation, calyx, corolla, Androecium, Gynoecium
C. Pollination: Types of pollination, contrivances of self and cross pollination, agents of pollination.
D. Embryology: Structure of anther and ovule, types of ovules, structure and development of Embryo sac, Fertilization and post fertilization changes.
E. Fruit: Types of fruits - simple, aggregate and multiple, True and false fruits
F. Dispersal of seeds and fruits: Agents of dispersal
V. CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANTS:
A. Principles of classification and nomenclature, Bentham & Hookers system of classification
B. Study of the following families: - Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Liliaceae
VI. ECONOMIC BOTANY:
Botanical name, family, morphology of useful part, varieties, economic importance of the following - Paddy, Wheat, Jowar, Bajra, Red gram, Bengal gram, Groundnut, Coconut, Cotton, Jute, Mango, Banana, Neem and Amla
VII. CELL BIOLOGY:
Cell theory, Ultra structure of Eukaryotic cell, differences between plant and animal cells, Chromosomes and Nucleic acids.
VIII. CELL DIVISION:
Mitosis and meiosis
IX. INTERNAL ORGANISATION OF PLANTS:
A. Tissues: Meristems, Simple, complex and secretory tissues
B. Tissue systems: Epidermal, Ground and vascular tissue systems.
C. Root apex and stem apex
D. Anatomy of dicot and monocot roots
E. Anatomy of dicot and monocot stems
F. Anatomy of dicot & monocot leaves
G. Normal secondary growth in dicot stem
A. Scope and applications of biotechnology, aspects of biotechnology
B. Genetic engineering
C. Tissue culture and singe cell protein, somatic hybridization
D. Mushroom cultivation (White button mushrooms)
A. Broad outlines of the classifications (cryptogams & phanerogams)
B. Salient features of the major groups - Thallophyta (Algae & Fungi), Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta (Gymnosperms & angiosperms)
C. Study of the structure and life history of the following forms:- Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Funaria, Pteris, & Cycas
A. Branches of applied Microbiology and their Importance
B. Bacteria: Introduction, distribution, habitat, Structure, Nutrition, reproduction and economic importance
C. Viruses: Introduction, structure of TMV & bacteriophage, Multiplication, transmission, symptoms of viral diseases on plants and their control measures.
XIII. PLANT PATHOLOGY:
A. Introduction, brief historical account of plant pathology, classification of plant diseases, general control measures. B. Symptoms, causative organism and control measures of the following diseases - 1. Blast of paddy (Rice)
2. Red rot of sugar cane
3. Grain smut of sorghum
4. Citrus canker
XIV. PLANTS AND ENVIRONMENT:
A. Introduction, scope of ecology, levels of organization, basic concepts of ecology
B. Plant communities - Hydrophytes, Mesophytes, Xerophytes
C. Soil - Soil formation, soil profile, components of soil, plant groups in relation to soil characteristics, soil erosion, soil conservation (Note: Vegetation of AP and forests of AP - OMITTED)
XV. CROP IMPROVEMENT:
Introduction, Aims & Objectives of plant breeding, organizations of crop improvement research, methods of plant breeding - Introduction, selection, hybridization, Hybrid vigour, Polyploidy breeding, Mutation breeding
XVI. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY:
A. Water relations of plants: Importance of water, availability of water, bulk flow, diffusion, Water potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition - Absorption of water by plants - (Active and passive absorption). Ascent of sap - (root pressure theory, cohesion - tension theory) Transpiration - Definition, types of transpiration, Structure of stomata, Mechanism of stomatal opening and closing, factors affecting transpiration, importance of transpiration.
B. Mineral Nutrition: Introduction, Macro and Microelements, criteria of essentiality, role of NPK in plant nutrition, Absorption of ions, (Active and passive absorption). Carrier theory (cytochrome pump theory, Lecithin carrier theory) Fertilisers - (Inorganic, Organic, Bio-Fertilizers) - Importance of bio fertilizers.
C. Enzymes: Definition, Historical account, Properties, components of enzyme nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Mode of enzyme action
D. Photosynthesis: Introduction, historical account, structure of chloroplast, Photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophylls, Carotenoids & Phycobilins), Hills reaction, Emerson enhancement effect, photosystems, Photolysis of water, photophosphorylation, C3 pathway, C4 pathway, CAM pathway, Photorespiration, factors affecting photosynthesis, Importance of photosynthesis. E. Translocation of Organic solutes: Munch's Hypothesis.
F. Respiration: Introduction, Types of respiration, differences between aerobic & anaerobic respiration - Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport System, mechanism of anaerobic respiration, alcoholic fermentation, respiratory quotient (RQ)
G. Nitrogen Metabolism: Forms of Nitrogen, biological nitrogen fixation, (Symbiotic & non symbiotic) Bio-synthesis of proteins (Transcription and Translation), Genetic code and its properties.
H. Plant Growth Regulators And Seed Germination: Introduction, Discovery & Physiological effects of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene, Role of hormones in agriculture and horticulture, Photoperiodism, Seed germination - Physiological changes during germination, conditions required for germination, seed vigour, and seed dormancy.
UNIT - I : ZOOLOGY, THE BASICS:
i) Nature and Scope of Zoology
ii) Relation between Zoology and Other Sciences
iii) Basic principles of classification
a) Need for classification
b) Five Kingdom classification, viz., Monera, Protista, Plantae, fungi and Animalia.
c) Concept of species - levels of classification - Binomial nomenclature
d) Kingdom Protista - Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic unicellular organisms.
UNIT - II : GENERAL CHARACTERS AND CLASSIFICATION OF INVERTEBRATE PHYLA UPTO THE LEVEL OF CLASSES WITH EXAMPLES
i) Phylum : Protozoa
ii) Phylum : Porifera
iii) Phylum : Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
iv) Phylum : Platyhelminthes
v) Phylum : Nemathelminthes
vi) Phylum : Annelida
vii) Phylum : Arthropoda
viii) Phylum : Mollusca
ix) Phylum : Echinodermata
UNIT - III: ANIMAL ORGANISATION:
i) Symmetry - Types and characteristic features of each symmetry, giving an example for each type from the representative Phyla - Asymmetry, Radial Symmetry, Biradial symmetry and Bilateral symmetry
a) Formation of coelom
b) Schizocoelic and Enterocoelic coelom
c) Definition of Acoelom, Pseudo-coelom & Coelom - Examples from major Phyla.
iii) Animal tissues
UNIT - IV: LOCOMOTION AND REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA:
i) Types and Structure of locomotary organelles - Pseudopodia, Cilia & flagellae giving examples.
ii) Amoeboid movement (Pseudopodial movement) - Sol-gel theory only
iii) Ciliary and flagellar movements - Synchronal and Metachronal movements (eg. Paramecium) Effective stroke and recovery stroke (eg. Euglena)
IV) Types of Reproduction:
a) Encystment (eg. Amoeba and Euglena) - Process and its significance (Dissemination and Multiplication).
b) Asxual reproduction - Binary Fission - (types, transverse and longitudinal).
c) Sxual reproduction - conjugation as exemplified by vorticella - its significance
UNIT - V: ANIMAL ASSOCIATIONS:
i) Definition and 1 or 2 examples of the following associations
a) Mutualism / Symbiosis
ii) Structure and life cycle of the following parasites
a) Entamoeba histolytica
b) Plasmodium Viva
c) Taenia Solium
d) Wuchereria bancrofti
iii) List of following Parasites giving scientific name, common name, vector, stage of infection, mode of transmission, affected systems and name of the diseases caused. Entamoeba gingivalis - Opalina - Balantidium - Giardia - Monocystis - Plasmodium ovale - Palsmodium malariae - Plasmodium falcifarum Eimeria - Trypanosoma gambiensie - Trypanosoma rhodesiensie - Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovai, Leishmania tropica - Taenia saginata - Echinococus granulose - Hymenolepis nana - Ascaris lumbricoides - Schistosoma haemotobium - Paragonimus - Ancylostoma duodenale - Enterobius and Loa loa.
UNIT - VI: PHYLUM:
Annelida - Pheritima - Type study in detail
UNIT - VII: PHYLUM - ARTHROPODA:
i) Cockroach - Peripatetic Americana - External characters digestive, respiratory and nervous systems only.
ii) Life cycle and economic importance of silk worm
iii) Insect mouth parts of the following types:
a) Biting chewing type, eg. Cockroach
b) Piercing and sucking type, eg. Mosquito
c) Sponging and sucking type, eg. Housefly
d) Siphoning type, eg. Butterfly
IV) Economic importance of insects:
a) Useful insects, viz., Honey bee, Lac insect - their produce and general features.
b) Harmful insects viz., Bed bug, Head Louse. Mosquito and Housefly - their harmful effects and diseases spread by them.
UNIT - VIII: MAN AND BIOSPHERE:
A. Elementary aspects of the following:
i. Abiotic factors - Light, temperature and water - their effects on organisms.
ii. Biotic Factors - producers, consumers and decomposers
iii. Pond Ecosystem - Littoral Zone, Limnetic Zone and profundal zone - Ecological pyramids and energy flow
iv. Population ecology : Population density, growth, age distribution and population regulation.
B. Environmental Pollution:
i) Air Pollution - Primary and Secondary Pollutants - Sulphur dioxide, Nitrous oxide, Particulates, aerosols, carbon monoxide and noise
ii) Water pollution - pollutants - pesticide, industrial effluents, sewage, heavy metals, radio - active substances
iii) Land pollution - Fertilizers, pesticides & Solid waste
iv) Preventive measures of Environmental pollution
v) Wild life conservation
vi) Legislation on environment protection with reference to Indian context.
C. Application Biology:
Biotechnology involved in Alcohal, Enzymes, Antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies, Vaccines and hormones.
UNIT IX : PHYLUM : CHORDATA:
A. General characters and out line classification of Chordata upto classes with typical examples. B. i) Pisces: Distinctive features of cartilaginous and Bony fishes, typical Examples
ii) Amphibia: Distinctive features of Urodela, Anura and Apoda. Typical Examples.
C. i) Reptilia: Distinctive characters of Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, Crocodilia and Chelonia with typical Examples.
ii) Identification of Poisonous and Non-Poisonous Snakes, Poison apparatus, Toxicity of snake venom and treatment of snake bite including first aid.
iii) Aves: Distincive features of Carinatae and Ratitae with typical examples.
iv) Mammalia: Distinctive features of Prototheria, Metatheria and Eutheria.
UNIT X: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF RABBIT - DIGESTIVE RESPIRATORY AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS:
A. Digestive System of Rabbit - Comparison with that of Frog:
Nutrition & Digestion
1. Nutrition - Chemistry of food stuffs (Carbohydrates, Proteins and lipids) Role of Vitamins and Minerals in nutrition.
2. Digestion: Digestive enzymes and their mechanism of action - the sequence of digestion and absorption
B. Respiratory system of Rabbit - Mechanism of Respiration and Transport of respiratory gases.
C. Circulatory system of Rabbit
i) Structure of Heart, Arterial and venous systems - comparison with those of Frog
ii) Working of the heart of Rabbit
iii) Coagulation of blood
UNIT XI: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF RABBIT - EXCRETORY, MUSCULOSKELETAL AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
A. Excretory system of Rabbit - Comparison with that of Frog
i) Structure and function of Nephron.
ii) Urine formation and its composition
B. Muscular - Skeletal System:
i) Ultra structure and contraction of muscle sliding filament theory system
ii) Types of Joints
C. Reproductive system of Rabbit - Comparison with that of Frog - Structure
ii) Development of Rabbit upto gastrulation, gestation and viviparity
D. Central Peripheral and autonomous Nervous systems in brief . Name and Roman nomenclature of cervical nerves , types - motor sensory & mixed nerves
E. Endocrine system - Endocrine glands [Pitutary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal ( medula and cortex), Pancreas, Ovary & Testes] and the role of their hormones .
UNIT XII: GENETICS:
A. Mendel's Laws
B. Sx determination
C. i) Sx determination X0, ZZ, ZW to Honey bee methods, Secondary sx differences - role of Hormones
ii) Sx linked inheritance X, Y, XY, incomplete, sx limited and sx influenced inheritance
D. Gene expression and gene regulation
E. Blood groups - Their inheritance (ABO & Rh) -Rh factors, significance in pregnancy and transfusion
UNIT XIII: ORGANIC EVOLUTION:
A. i) Origin of life
ii) Theories of Organic evolution - Lamarck, Darwin, Devries
B. Modern Concepts - Variations - Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, Natural selection - Gene pool speciation - macro and micro evolution - drift
C. Evidence of organic evolution
UNIT XIV: APPLIED ZOOLOGY:
A i) Poultry
Layers and Broilers
Poultry diseases ( Bacterial, Viral and fungal)
ii) Animal breeding in Dairy and Poultry - Cloning
B. Immunity disorders - AIDS, Hepatitis and Allergic reactions